Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The COVID-19 pandemic has created opportunities for people to lead in different ways. In this piece, we highlight the concept of “IN” and “OUT” leadership. The idea was first brought to our attention in a Harvard Business Review article by Gill Korkindale. We summarise and extend the features of “IN” and “OUT” leadership and hypothesise that these features may be associated with individual dominant leadership styles.

Read the full article:



Sean Heneghan is a Chartered Organisational Psychologist and Senior Tutor on the University of Oxford Evidence-Based Healthcare Leadership Programme.

Kamal R. Mahtani is an NHS GP, Associate Professor and Director of the Oxford International Primary Care Research Leadership and EBHC Leadership programmes, and Co-Director at the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford.

Acknowledgement: We thank Jeff Aronson, Stephanie Tierney and Meena Mahtani for helpful comments on an earlier draft.

Declaration of interests 

We have read and understood the BMJ Group policy on declaration of interests and declare the following interests: none. The views expressed in this commentary represent the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the host institution, the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health and Social Care