Dietary patterns among older Europeans: The EPIC-Elderly study
Bamia C., Orfanos P., Ferrari P., Overvad K., Hundborg HH., Tjøonneland A., Olsen A., Kesse E., Boutron-Ruault MC., Clavel-Chapelon F., Nagel G., Boffetta P., Boeing H., Hoffmann K., Trichopoulos D., Baibas N., Psaltopoulou T., Norat T., Slimani N., Palli D., Krogh V., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Ocké MC., Peeters PH., van Rossum CT., Quirós JR., Sánchez MJ., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Berglund G., Wirfält E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Bingham S., Khaw KT., Spencer EA., Roddam AW., Riboli E., Trichopoulou A.
Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north - south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival. © The Authors 2005.