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Background: The cardiovascular and kidney benefits of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are well established. The implementation of updated SGLT2 inhibitor guidelines and prescribing in the real-world CKD population remains largely unknown. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults with CKD registered with UK primary care practices in the Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre network on the 31st December 2022 was undertaken. Pseudonymised data from electronic health records held securely within the Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners Clinical Informatics Digital Hub (ORCHID) were extracted. An update to a previously described ontological approach was used to identify the study population, using a combination of Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) indicating a diagnosis of CKD and laboratory confirmed CKD based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) diagnostic criteria. We examined the extent to which SGLT2 inhibitor guidelines apply to and are then implemented in adults with CKD. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with SGLT2 inhibitor prescribing, reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The four guidelines under investigation were the United Kingdom Kidney Association (UKKA) Clinical Practice Guideline SGLT2 Inhibition in Adults with Kidney Disease (October 2021), American Diabetes Association (ADA) and KDIGO Consensus Report on Diabetes Management in CKD (October 2022), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guideline Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: Management (June 2022), and NICE Technology Appraisal Dapagliflozin for Treating CKD (March 2022). Findings: Of 6,670,829 adults, we identified 516,491 (7.7%) with CKD, including 32.8% (n = 169,443) who had co-existing type 2 diabetes (T2D). 26.8% (n = 138,183) of the overall CKD population had a guideline directed indication for SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. A higher proportion of people with CKD and co-existing T2D were indicated for treatment, compared to those without T2D (62.8% [n = 106,468] vs. 9.1% [n = 31,715]). SGLT2 inhibitors were prescribed to 17.0% (n = 23,466) of those with an indication for treatment, and prescriptions were predominantly in those with co-existing T2D; 22.0% (n = 23,464) in those with T2D, and <0.1% (n = 2) in those without T2D. In adjusted multivariable analysis of people with CKD and T2D, females (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.67–0.72, p <0.0001), individuals of Black ethnicity (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77–0.91, p <0.0001) and those of lower socio-economic status (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.68–0.76, p <0.0001) were less likely to be prescribed an SGLT2 inhibitor. Those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a lower likelihood of receiving an SGLT2 inhibitor, compared to those with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (eGFR 45–60 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.62–0.68, p <0.0001, eGFR 30–45 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.69–0.78, p <0.0001, eGFR 15–30 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46–0.60, p <0.0001, eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00–0.23, p = 0.0037, respectively). Those with albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 3–30 mg/mmol) were less likely to be prescribed an SGLT2 inhibitor, compared to those without albuminuria (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75–0.82, p <0.0001). Interpretation: SGLT2 inhibitor guidelines in CKD have not yet been successfully implemented into clinical practice, most notably in those without co-existing T2D. Individuals at higher risk of adverse outcomes are paradoxically less likely to receive SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. The timeframe between the publication of guidelines and data extraction may have been too short to observe changes in clinical practice. Enhanced efforts to embed SGLT2 inhibitors equitably into routine care for people with CKD are urgently needed, particularly in those at highest risk of adverse outcomes and in the absence of T2D. Funding: None.

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