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Objective: High-fat high-protein (HFHP) meals are associated with post-prandial hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D), administration of additional insulin for such meals is recommended in order to optimize glucose levels. Optimal timing of additional insulin for HFHP meals in children and young people receiving multiple daily injections (MDI) remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the glycemic impact of additional insulin doses given before or after eating a HFHP meal in children with T1D using MDI. Research Design and Methods: A randomized, controlled three period crossover trial of 27 participants aged 13 years (6.1–17.7) at two Pediatric Diabetes centers was conducted. Additional rapid-acting insulin for the fat–protein content of a standardized HFHP meal was given at three time points (Formula presented.) calculated using an algorithm extrapolated from current evidence base and clinical recommendations. Post-prandial glucose (PPG) parameters were calculated for 420 minutes using continuous glucose monitoring. The primary outcome was mean PPG excursion. Secondary outcomes included peak glucose, time to peak and hypoglycemia incidence. Results: There was no difference in post-prandial glucose parameters when additional HFHP insulin was administered at (Formula presented.) mean glucose excursion (mmol/L) (SE): 1.9(0.7), 1.2(0.7), 2.5(0.7); p = 0.5); mean peak glucose (mmol/L)(SE): 10.9(0.9), 11.5(0.8), 11.5(0.9); p = 0.9; time to peak glucose (mins)(SE): 82.3(35.4), 113.6(30.9), 95.1(32.1); p = 0.8. Mild hypoglycemia was common (55%) in all groups (p = 0.97). Conclusion: We found no benefit in giving additional insulin as a split dose for HFHP meals in children using MDI, mild hypoglycemia was common. Future studies would benefit from refinement of the insulin dose algorithm.

Original publication




Journal article


Pediatric Diabetes

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